With President Theodore Roosevelt’s signature, Wind Cave became the nation’s eighth national park. It was also the first national park established to protected a cave.
Wind Cave is sacred to many indigenous tribes in the region, including the Lakota people who deem Wind Cave as their place of creation. The Lakota people believe they are descendants of the Buffalo Nation who emerged from the cave. The first individual to emerge from the cave learned the traditional Lakota way of life and returned into the cave to tell his nation about the surface of the earth. Once everyone emerged, they found they were unable to return to the cave and so they began life anew and established the Seven Council Fires.
While several mining claims occurred at Wind Cave, one of the most noteworthy was made by the South Dakota Mining Company. In 1890, J.D. MacDonald set out to explore the cave in hopes of mining it, but his efforts were unsuccessful. However, MacDonald was not without vision for the cave. He recognized the ability to provide tours of the cave and selling pieces of formations from it.
After filing a homesteading claim for the land, the MacDonald family devoted his time to creating a larger entrance to the cave while his son Alvin, explored the cave, mapping his explorations in a diary. By January of 1891, Alvin MacDonald had abandoned his efforts to find the end of Wind Cave.
In 1893, the MacDonalds joined forces with John Stabler and formed the Wonderful Wind Cave Company. Following the untimely death of Alvin MacDonald, however, the relationship between the MacDonalds and Stablers soured. When their concerns reached the Department of Interior, the agency ruled that since no actual mining had occurred in land held by a mining claim, neither party had a claim to the land. Taking the land out of homesteading status allowed for it to be placed into the protection of the federal government ten years later.
Wildlife officials from Wind Cave National Park are reporting progress in efforts to cull the elk population in the park, reports the Black Hills Pioneer. To date, an estimated 175 elk have been killed. Approximately 525-550 elk were in the park prior to the cull, and officials hope to reduce the number to 230-250 total elk.
This year is the first in which wildlife outside of the park have been prevented from entering the park during the cull. High fences were installed as a deterrent. Officials hope that the final count will be more accurate as a result.
Wildlife scientists hope to reduce the occurrence of Chronic Wasting Disease through culling efforts. Experts will follow the elk herd in coming years to determine if the reduction in population had a positive effect on the rate of the disease.
To read more news about Wind Cave National Park, visit the Black Hills Knowledge Network’s online news archive.
This week, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Black-footed Ferret Conservation Center in Colorado released nine black-footed ferrets into Wind Cave National Park, reports the Black Hills Pioneer. The release of the ferrets is part of the park’s effort to reintroduce the endangered animal into the southern portion of the park.
According to park surveys from September and October, there are approximately 25-30 ferrets already in the park, although the projection may be low as the mammals are nocturnal, making them difficult to accurately count. The nine ferrets released this week were preconditioned to be able to hunt and avoid predators.
To read more about wildlife in the Black Hills region, visit the Black Hills Knowledge Network’s online news archive.
The National Park Service and the South Dakota Game, Fish & Parks Department are aiming to reduce the occurrence of chronic wasting disease in the elk population at Wind Cave National Park. The Rapid City Journal reports that around 50 volunteer shooters are being recruited to work in tandem with park officials to shoot the elk in mid-November.
All elk that are shot will be tested for chronic wasting disease. The meat from elk without the disease will be donated to Feeding South Dakota. Volunteer applications will be accepted through September 28. Participant requirements and additional information on the application process can be found on the South Dakota Game, Fish & Parks website.
To learn more about Wind Cave National Park, visit the Black Hills Knowledge Network’s online news archive.
The Rapid City Journal reports 2016 could be even better for tourism in the Black Hills than 2015. In 2015 the area celebrated the 75th Sturgis Motorcycle Rally and 50th Custer State Park Buffalo Roundup, with a combined attendance of nearly 800,000. In 2016 the Mount Rushmore National Memorial celebrates 75 years since its completion and the National Park Services centennial celebration is under way. The Sturgis Motorcycle Rally may also see high attendance again this year from those that missed the landmark year in 2015 to avoid the crowds.
Two middle school students from Hot Springs tied as winners of the contest. They received video cameras, while all entrants received T-shirts.
More events are planned by all national parks as part of the 100th anniversary celebration.
The winning videos, seen below, also are on the Wind Cave Facebook page.
By Haley Hampton:
By Josie Lively:
The Rapid City Journal reports that 1,300 acres of forest burned in the Cold Fire this weekend. It is named the Cold Fire because the fire originated near the the Cold Springs Schoolhouse, although the source of the fire is still undetermined. The fire burnt private land in addition to parts of Black Hills National Forest, Wind Cave National Park, and Norbeck Wildlife Preserve.
The caves of the Black Hills are among the longest in the world, and new research shows they might contain some of the purest water on earth, reports South Dakota Public Radio.
The lakes in Wind Cave and the newly discovered bodies of water in Jewel Cave are a treasure trove for microbiologists who study the rare bacteria that have evolved in the untouched and dark underground water of the Madison Aquifer.
Two researchers said the cave microbes could help fight bacteria that have become resistant to anti-biotics and even help scientists understand life on other planets.
Researchers exploring Persistence Cave, a newly discovered cavern in Wind Cave National Park, have already found the fossilized remains of more than 25 different species, reports South Dakota Public Broadcasting.
The project is lead by Dr. Jim Mead, a professor at East Tennessee State University and Interim Chief Scientist at the Hot Springs Mammoth Site. Mead is focusing on the study of Persistence Cave’s fossils this summer, noting that the discovery of Pika fossils shows what the climate in the Black Hills was like in the past. The Pika is a small mammal that resides in very cold climates, and most likely lived in the Black Hills during the last Ice Age.
This information will be used to adjust Park Service’s land management actions and react to future climate change in Wind Cave National Park.
Excavation is likely to continue for several more weeks, with scientific research continuing into the next few years. Eager spelunkers are standing by for excavation to be finished so that they can finally explore what could be a vast labyrinth of caves below the surface.